listening lab 2022

 

LISTENING LAB 0522

Step 1: Read the questions below.

質問を読んでください。

 

1. How long ago did the 5th mass extinction* occur? 

2. How big was the asteroid* that caused the end of the dinosaurs?  

3. Where is the Tanis dig site* located?    

4. What animal is the fossilized* egg from?  

5. What TV program covered* the Tanis discovery?

 

*mass extinction=大量絶滅 

*asteroid=小惑星 

*dig site=発掘現場 

*fossilized=化石化した 

*cover A=Aを取り上げる

Step 2:  Listen to the audio and try to answer the questions.
オーディオを聞いて、 質問に答えて見て下さい。
 
Listening Lab by CLaire - page 11
00:0000:00

Step 3:  Listen again while you read the article.

記事を読みながら、もう一度聞いてみてください。
   
The 5th Mass Extinction
by Claire Gorant
     
         Approximately 66 million years ago, almost all of the dinosaurs on earth suddenly died. This was the 5th mass extinction in history, and afterwards, mammals became the most powerful animals on the planet. Scientists searched for the cause of this mass extinction for hundreds of years, and now, most agree that it was cause by an asteroid, a giant rock from space, that fell to the earth in the Gulf of Mexico. This rock was thought to be 12 kilometers wide, about the size of Mt. Everest. But even though scientists thought they knew where the asteroid had hit, they were unable to find any pieces of it and could only guess about what had happened on that last day. That changed three years ago. 
 
     In 2019, in a dig site in the United States state of North Dakota, 3,000 kilometers north of the crash, scientists found something amazing. This dig site, called Tanis, contained thousands of fossils, but that wasn’t what was so unusual. Unlike at normal dig sites, where the fossils usually come from similar animals, at Tanis there were fossils of land animals, aquatic animals, and even plants all mixed together, rolled up in dirt and stone that tested positive for minerals commonly found in asteroids. Scientists also found something strange in some of the fish. Looking at the fossils, they found tiny, glass-like pieces of melted rock that are almost always discovered at asteroid impact sites. Researchers believe that these animals may have died when the giant rock crashed into our planet.
 
     However, while the fossils, the minerals, and the melted rock were an important find by themselves, one piece stood out from the rest. It was a whole fossilized egg, with an undamaged baby still inside. Scientists believe it came from a pterosaur, a flying cousin of the dinosaurs, which grew to be over 10 meters from wing tip to wing tip. They plan to use X-ray technology to scan, print, and rebuild the bones in a lab. On top of that, the dig was filmed from start to finish, and a BBC program, Dinosaurs: The Final Day, was aired in the spring of 2022. Now everyone can enjoy these astonishing finds, and scientists have come one step closer to understanding the final days of the dinosaurs. 
    

Step 4:  Check your answers.

答えをチェックしてください。

1. How long ago did the 5th mass extinction occur? 

It happened about 66 million years ago.

2. How big was the asteroid that caused the end of the dinosaurs?

It was 12 km wide.  /  It was as big as Mt. Everest.  

3. Where is the Tanis dig site located?

It is in North Dakota.  /  It is 3,000 kilometers north of where the asteroid crashed.    

4. What animal is the fossilized egg from?

It's from a pterosaur.  

5. What TV program covered the Tanis discovery?

The BBC program called Dinosaurs: The Final Day covered it.

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LISTENING LAB 0322

Step 1: Read the questions below.

質問を読んでください。

 

1.  When is the earliest mention of sake in historical documents?

2.  How many active sake breweries are there now?

3.  According to historical documents, who were the first people to make sake?

4.   When did Japan see its first female toji in modern times?

5.   How many active breweries are run by women now?

Step 2:  Listen to the audio and try to answer the questions.
オーディオを聞いて、 質問に答えて見て下さい。
 
Listening Lab by CLaire - page 11
00:0000:00

Step 3:  Listen again while you read the article.

記事を読みながら、もう一度聞いてみてください。
   
The Changing Face of Sake
by Claire Gorant
     Nihonshu, or sake as it’s usually called when sold abroad, has a very long history. It is found in documents dating back to the sixth century, and was not only an everyday drink, but also used in traditional and spiritual ceremonies. It was incredibly popular — after WWII, sake made up about 80% of all alcohol sales. However, those numbers have been dropping. Now, sake makes up less than 7% of alcohol sales. The number of active breweries has gone from over 30,000 in the 1800s to only around 1,200 now. With shrinking sales and too few young people moving into sake production, women are filling positions all the way up to owner and toji (or brewmaster), which had traditionally been held by men. 
     “Traditionally” might be the wrong word. In fact, the earliest historical records of sake show it being created by female attendants at Shinto shrines. It is believed that the attendants chewed the rice grains, then spat them out to brew alcohol for their ceremonies. And until the 19th century, women were involved in every part of the sake brewing process. But why did that change? There are a number of possibilities, but many historians believe that as breweries began to modernize, they became bigger and more dangerous, at a time when society thought women should be taking care of the home. Whatever the reason, soon there were almost no women working in sake production at all. 
     In the past 40 years, this has started to change. In Hiroshima in 1985, a woman named Isae Mizuno became the first female toji in modern times, holding that position until she retired in 2014. And in 1988, the popular manga Natsuko no Sake followed a young girl who took over her family’s brewery. Many of the new leaders are bringing a sense of innovation with them. A small brewery in Kyoto worked for years to bring back an ancient kind of rice local to the area, and their sake made from this rice has built a strong fan base. The number of female-run breweries is still low (only about 50 out of 1,200), but as older owners age out, this new generation has a chance to bring sake back into the spotlight.    
    

Step 4:  Check your answers.

答えをチェックしてください。

1.  When is the earliest mention of sake in historical documents?

The earliest mention is in the 6th century.

2.  How many active sake breweries are there now?

There are 1,200.

3.  According to historical documents, who were the first people to make sake?

The first people to make sake were female attendants at Shinto shrines.

4.   When did Japan see its first female toji in modern times?

Japan saw its first female toji in modern times in 1985.

or  That happened in 1985.

5.   How many active breweries are run by women now?

About 50 active breweries are run by women now.

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LISTENING LAB 0122

Step 1: Read the questions below.

質問を読んでください。

 

1.  When was the first food bank opened?

2.  Where did the woman find free food for her children?

3.  In 1977, how many cities had food banks?

4.  Is Feeding America the original name of the food bank network?

5.  How many hungry children get food through Feeding America?

Step 2:  Listen to the audio and try to answer the questions.
オーディオを聞いて、 質問に答えて見て下さい。
 
Listening Lab - page 11
00:0000:00

Step 3:  Listen again while you read the article.

記事を読みながら、もう一度聞いてみてください。
   
Food Banks
     The first food bank opened in the late 1960s.  It was called St. Mary’s Food Bank, and it was established by John van Hengel, a retired businessman.  The idea came to him when he was talking to a woman who was struggling to feed her family.  She told him she often rummaged through grocery store dumpsters to find food to feed her children.  She said that often the food the grocery stores threw out was still perfectly good to eat.  She wondered why that food wasn't stored somewhere — like money is stored in a bank — for people like her to pick up when they needed it.   
     In St. Mary’s Food Bank's initial year, the team of volunteers distributed 275,000 pounds of food to people in need.  Soon people in other states became aware of the food bank’s success, and they started other food banks.   By 1977, there were food banks in 18 cities across the country.  In 1979,  Van Hengel organized a network of food banks called Second Harvest, which was later called America’s Second Harvest the Nation’s Food Bank Network.  In 2008, the name of the network was changed to Feeding America.  Though the name has changed, the goal has not, and for nearly four decades, this network of food banks has responded to the hunger crisis in America by providing food to people in need.  
 
     Today, Feeding America is a network of 200 food banks across the country.  It is the nation’s largest domestic hunger-relief organization. Every year, these food banks feed 46.5 million people, including twelve million children and seven million seniors. To learn more or to donate your time or money, please visit their website at  www.feedingamerica.org.
*rummage through A =ひっかき回してAを捜す   
    

Step 4:  Check your answers.

答えをチェックしてください。

1.  When was the first food bank opened?

It was opened in the 1960s.

2.  Where did the woman find free food for her children?

She found free food in grocery store dumpsters.

3.  In 1977, how many cities had food banks?

Eighteen cities did.

4.  Is Feeding America the original name of the food bank network?

No, it isn't.

5.  How many hungry children get food through Feeding America?

Twelve million children do.

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